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#3.3 D-F/F
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D-Flip/Flop's the most important sequential memory element which can be found in all types of programmable logic and hence its used by default in all types of synchronous designs. 


This exercise present 3 different implementations of D-F/F's. I prefer to use a multiplexer based D-Latch instead of the more realistic circuit which can be found in textbooks

A "real-life" D-F/F will normally be based on three feedback loops or a similar CMOS based circuit.

Study the D-F/F circuit here

Or the CMOS D-latch here (go to the bottom)

  •  D-Flip/Flop 1 - Based on two "D-latches"

The functionality of a D-F/F can be obtained by connecting two D-Lathes in series. (See the explanation below)
One D-Latch should be active low and the another active high. What happens if the two latches changes places?

Note! The Mux implementation with D-Latches not advisable in practice, but nevertheless its works in test.

  •  D-Flip/Flop 2 - Primitive D-F/F

The Schematic symbols library of ISE offers several versions of D-F/Fs.

Check them out yourself or learn more in the next exercise.












Extract from the Xilinx datasheet of Spartan 3E devices.

  •  D-Flip/Flop 3 - The most common VHDL definition

A VHDL signal can be connection to a number of Predefined Attributes.

'Event most likely the only attribute you ever need unless your about write "advanced" VHDL code.

The predefined functions Rising_edge( ) and Falling_edge( ) are replacements for the similar 'event expressions.

Read more about in the documentations like Hardi - page 51 or under the Language Templates.

Will the two versions of D-F/F's used the same number of internal F/F's?


  •  Download the bit-file for testing here: For the BASYS kit use  Test_D_FFs.bit or  NEXYS_test_d_latches.bit
      Try it yourself ... the functionality of the different implementations of D-Flip/Flops.

  •  Please note the output from D-F/F3 after the download of the bit-file.  How come ....... ?

  •  What's inside a D-F/F - explanation of principles.

  •  CMOS D-Latches - Based on transmission gates

Learn more about the CMOS D-latch here
(go to the bottom)